Slum Upgrading and Long-Run Urban Development: Evidence from Indonesia

The United Nations estimates that 2.5 billion people will be added to cities by 2050 and that 95% of the urban expansion will be in the developing world. Policy makers are considering different approaches to expand cities to accommodate the massive urbanization flows.

We examine the long-term outcomes of one of the world’s largest slum upgrading programs, the Kampung Improvement Program in Indonesia, which covered 5 million people. This project is funded by the Tanoto ASEAN Initiative and the Global Initiatives at The Wharton School.